2022-03 Factsheet - Libya
- In 2022, some 397,000 people are estimated to need shelter and NFI items. This is a 6% increase in the number compared to 2021, with the most significant increase among the returnee population.
- For refugees, migrants and those seeking asylum, 20% are in need of shelter support or support with NFI in 2022. They face continued barriers in accessing the private rental market and what they can rent is often below standard. A lack of security of tenure not only exposes them to arbitrary eviction, but also rental increases and harassment.
- Although there is slight increase in the overall people in need of shelter support and NFI assistance (6 %), a marked increase was noted for IDPs and migrants. Of the total remaining IDPs, 22,680 people live in sub-standard inadequate housing require technical and financial support to improve their housing conditions. In addition, some 20,000 people are considered most vulnerable as they remain living in informal sites without access to adequate services and houses.
- Improving security conditions have permitted more displaced people to return to their area of origins, creating new needs over the past 12 months. Once home, 88 % live in their original homes, which increases demands for materials and services for housing repair and replacement of essential household items. Lack of assistance in the form of compensation from the Government, and the deteriorated infrastructure pose several challenges for returnees, as the former housing benefit has yet to be reinstated.
- The percentage of IDPs in rental accommodation has marginally increased during this period to over 81%. This increase reflects the continued reduction in the numbers living in informal settlements mainly in the East but also in the West. Driving this change are the continued uncertainties around the informal settlements and threats of evictions, most notably in the three main Tawerghan sites in Tripoli but also at a site in the centre of Benghazi.
- In all regions of Libya, access to safe, dignified and affordable accommodation remains the top priority for IDPs. In contrast, accommodation is not a priority for those who have returned as almost 90% return to their original houses implying that once the barrier of repaired homes is removed, return is a feasible option.
- The lack of housing options for refugees and migrants remains a key issue and the ramifications of the raids and arrests starting on 1st October 2021 are still being felt. Free and equitable access to the rental market is even more challenging for all refugees and migrants regardless of their nationality or status in Libya.
- Access for the distribution of NFIs at detention centres has remained unstable and inconsistent due to additional regulations and guidelines from the authorities.
- Over 10.000 IDPs and returnees have benefited from the end of the winterization campaign which included essential household items such as blankets, mattresses, heaters, and clothing. The campaign was completed in the first quarter of 2022.
- Over 18,000 refugees and migrants received essential household items – typically blankets, mattresses and clothing in the first quarter of 2022.
GAPS / CHALLENGES
- The sector has traditionally used cash to provide essential household items (NFI) and accommodation in Libya. However, the ongoing restrictions and barriers imposed by the central bank, coupled with the liquidity crisis, has rendered this modality unfeasible. This has significantly hampered SNFI partner’s ability to deliver particularly in the provision of adequate housing.
- For the provision of housing for refugees and migrants, all modalities usually on offer such as rental support, rehabilitation or privately run collective centres are rendered unfeasible due to Government policy that restrict these activities. The only feasible modality left is cash, which although is feasible is rendered almost impossible by restrictions on the transfer of hard cash.
- Sector partners continue to face delays due to uncertainty about whether areas are free from unexploded ordnance and so represent safe areas for activities.