In the past ten months, insecurity, inter-communal conflict, and climatic shocks have continued to be Ethiopia's key drivers of humanitarian needs. In addition, soaring prices and reduced purchasing power have created economic barriers for displacement-affected populations to access essential household items or Shelters.
It has been a year since the cessation of hostilities in Tigray. Still, the humanitarian situation remains dire as the move to resume education, businesses, and other aspects of everyday life does not always align with the pace and scale of humanitarian response challenged by limited resources. Despite the Cluster's efforts to find alternative shelter solutions for thousands of IDPs living in collective centers, especially schools, many have not been relocated. Furthermore, due to the short-term nature of Cash for rent shelter solutions, some IDPs are also facing evictions from rented shelters within host communities.
In the past year, more than 1.5M IDPs in Tigray have returned to their places of origin through spontaneous or organized return exercises, but this doesn't mean that humanitarian aid ceased for these returnees. Most still face critical needs for shelter repair kits and NFIs.
Since the conflicts erupted in the Amhara region, even though there have been no reports of conflict-related displacement due to the fluidity of the access situation, the humanitarian responses, particularly for those already displaced or returned communities, have been impacted, drought-related displacements are reported in the North Gondor and Wagehemra zones.
As of October 31, 0000, flood-related displacements are reported in the Afder, Liben, and Shebele zones of Somali and South Omo, South, and Afar regions. Ethiopia's south and southwest regions (Benishangul Gumz, Gambela, Oromia, Somali, and SNNP) host around 2.3M displaced by an overlapping and recurring crisis of conflict, drought, floods, and landslides. Almost half-life in spontaneous sites, a third in host communities, a tenth in planned camps, and the rest in collective centers and dispersed settlements. The shelter conditions are precarious across all these settlements, and NFI needs are critical. In these regions, around half a million IDPs have returned to their places of origin, with 86% having returned more than six months ago.
More recently are government-led return exercises in the Oromia region, which saw the return of around 231,753 individuals/41,897 HHs (27.61% of the total caseload in six zones) to their original locations in 24 woredas of the four zones in Oromia region: East, West, Horo Guduru Wollega, and West Showa zones, ensure personal safety and protection, and promote resistance to ill health and disease; however, as of August, the cluster partners only reached 34% of its target on the Shelter-related activities for both IDPs and returnees. Therefore, the primary focus will be the provision of adequate Shelters to both IDPs and those who are returning and living in sub-standard conditions. These are the returnees in Afar, Amhara, Benishngul Gumz, and Tigray, the IDPs in Western Oromia, Somali, Tigray, and Amhara. To reflect these priorities, the Cluster target was revised to 3,164,404 people, comprising 845,985 men, 906,198 women, 687,429 boys, 724,792 girls, and 431,001 persons with disabilities.
The ES/NFI Cluster's response priorities aim to align with the population's needs and reduce health and protection risks by providing adequate living conditions. 956,124 people have been targeted with ESNFI kits, 1,380,210 with NFI kits, 973,837 with Emergency Shelter assistance, and 543,526 with repair kits across the country, of which 489,841, 571,078, 142,022, and 128,282 have been reached, respectively, by the end of October 2023.