In regions Sudan and Africa and in groups Sudan and Africa


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2023-09 Factsheet - Sudan

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As of March 2023, the IOM's DTM Round 6 documented 3.8 million IDPs in Sudan. Yet, a dramatic turn occurred on April 15th when a severe armed conflict erupted between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF). In little over 5 months, this resulted in an alarming displacement of 5.6 million people. Of these, 4.4 million found themselves newly internally displaced, while the remaining 1.2 million sought refuge in neighboring countries. The ferocity and indiscriminate nature of the clashes have not only caused substantial civilian casualties, but also led to widespread destruction of vital infrastructure, housing, and household assets.

May-revised HRP ’23 identified 5.7 million people in need of shelter and NFI assistance – a figure likely underestimated judging by the steep trend of displacement. With only 30% of its conservative HRP requirement funded, the Shelter and NFI Cluster struggles to mount a sufficient response. Since the onset of 2023, the cluster has achieved 20% of its goal, aiding 374,430 out of a targeted 1.9 million individuals. However, the relentless flow of displacements casts a shadow over this accomplishment, making it seem almost negligible against the backdrop of the 4.4 million people who've been compelled to abandon their homes (as of September 30) and move to safer parts of Sudan. As displacement continues unabated, the real needs substantially outstrip the current support.



Need analysis

At the onset of the crisis on April 15, 2023, Shelter and NFI needs were already acute, exacerbated by significant underfunding of the Cluster. Underserved communities, forced to depend on their sparse resources for reconstruction, inadvertently amplified existing vulnerabilities and exposure to recurring hazards. The intensity of the new clashes and their indiscriminate nature is now causing widespread devastation to housing, household assets and public infrastructure, prompting many to leave their homes.

In little over 5 months of the SAF-RSF conflict, 4.4 million people have been newly displaced across Sudan according to IOM DTM, and urgently need Shelter and NFI assistance, as many, including children, women, elderly, and others with specific needs, find themselves crammed into overcrowded shelters, public buildings, or forced to sleep outdoors exposed to severe weather and threats. Immediate provision of adequate shelter will be critical to ensure privacy and safety, mitigate GBV risk, and safeguard displaced populations from harsh environmental conditions to preserve their health amid the upcoming rainy season. Provision of essential household items will be crucial for restoring basic daily activities. Items such as bedding and cooking utensils, solar lamps for safety and security after dark, and solar chargers for maintaining connectivity, as well as mosquito nets to combat the upcoming malaria season, are all vitally important.


Since the beginning of the year, cluster partners have provided diverse forms of shelter and NFI assistance to 374,430 Sudanese people and 233,835 refugees.

This includes 210,310 IDPs, returnees and vulnerable residents, that were supported post April 15, across 15 states – North Darfur, Blue Nile, West Darfur, South Darfur, Gedaref, White Nile, Red Sea, Aj Jazirah, Northern, East Darfur, South Kordofan, North Kordofan, Sennar, West Kordofan and Khartoum. In an effort to alleviate their situation, partners distributed 37,758 NFI kits, 2,921 emergency shelter kits, 1,908 tents, and 520 cash grants for NFI. Moreover, 60 cash grants were provided for shelter, and 30 communal shelters were set up, while 5 generators were distributed to health facilities.

This also includes 163,500 refugees, supported post April 15, across 7 states – White Nile, Gedaref, East Darfur, Kassala, North Darfur, Blue Nile and Aj Jazirah, with 27,517 NFI kits, 6,061 emergency shelter kits, 3,200 cash grants for shelter, 2,410 tents and 30 communal shelters. Additionally, 6 camps in White Nile and neighboring communities benefited from construction of embankments for flood mitigation, while 4 camps in Gedaref are undergoing desilting of the drains for flood preparedness, as well as prepositioning of excavators to facilitate a rapid response in case of flood emergencies.

Gaps / challenges

Shelter and NFI Cluster partners have achieved 20% of the revised HRP's 1.9 million target. The current displacement rate is unprecedented, surpassing the early, conservative estimates in the May-revised HRP. As a result, the gap is greater than the revised HRP suggests.

IOM DTM consistently ranks Shelter/NFI among the top three needs, highlighting the urgent assistance required for the 4.2 million internally displaced since 15 April. With only 374,740 individuals assisted, the gap is a significant 91%. This underscores that realities on the ground are outgrowing the assumptions made in the revised HRP and the related FTS funding data at a rapid pace and scale.

IOM DTM reports also indicate dwindling host community solidarity over the past month, with the proportion of IDPs seeking safety with friends and family falling from 77% to 66%, while 9% of IDPs can still afford to rent accommodation. Meanwhile, those in living in camps have risen from 6.4% to 6.7%, and those in open area informal settlements remain at 9%. This troubling trend emphasizes the urgent need for additional funding for cash for rent and shelter provisions for host community housing IDPs to prevent people from resorting to streets and overcrowded, unsuitable sites.

With the majority of newly displaced individuals (54% of the 4.2 million), spread across accessible regions like the River Nile, Northern, Sennar, White Nile, Aj Jazirah, Gedaref, Red Sea, Kassala, and Blue Nile, the main challenge to responding at necessary scale in these areas continues to be a significant funding shortfall. These regions have few humanitarian actors since they didn't host IDPs before April 15. Efforts to set up new offices are financially straining due to rising operational costs, worsened by losses from hotspot areas where facilities and equipment were destroyed.

Widespread looting has also resulted in substantial losses of NFI kits, tents, and shelter materials. In response, cluster partners have turned to airlifting supplies to Sudan and importing items via sea as well as via road from Egypt, Chad and Ethiopia. While some partners have managed to secure customs clearance waivers, for others, this bureaucratic process continues to delay supply inflow.

Aid delivery to the 46% of displaced people in hotspot areas is challenging due to insecurity, escalating fuel prices, and introduction of new road taxes by military factions. The upcoming rainy season could worsen this. Yet, cross-border operations currently underway from Chad is alleviating the situation in the Darfur region.