In regions Ethiopia and Africa and in groups Ethiopia and Africa



2023-01 Factsheet - Ethiopia

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Shelter Cluster/IOM, IRC - December 2022


In Ethiopia, 2022 was characterised by conflict, UAGs activities, inter-communal clashes, drought, and flooding which caused displacements in Amhara, Afar and Tigray, Oromia, Somali, Benishangul Gumz, SNNP, Harari and Gambella regions. 1.2 million people were displaced in Tigray region due to conflict and lived in open areas, unfinished buildings, over-crowded collective centres as well as host communities with inadequate shelter and household items. Conflict and UAGs activities escalated in eastern, southern, and western parts of Oromia and some parts of the Somali region, with over a million displaced people living without shelter and essential household items. With the peace agreement in place for the Tigray conflict, activities have resumed and are gradually improving with resources allowed to enter the regions, fuel beginning to be available and areas becoming accessible. Over 600K people were also displaced due to drought in Ethiopia and lacked shelter and essential household items. Amhara Region is also experiencing a new displacement trend from Oromia region, the has led to the reopening of collective centres and congestion of rooms in the existing collective centres. Returnees were mainly reported in Amhara, Afar and Benishangul Gumz regions following the improvement in the security situation in the respective regions. The Cluster had 7.8 million people in need out of which 4.5 million were targeted for various shelter and NFI responses at the beginning of the year 2022, and these figures were revised during the Mid-Year Review, and to 5.8 million and 4.1 million for PIN and target respectively.



Coverage against targets

Need analysis

The Cluster had 4.1 million People in Need out of which 2.5 million were targeted in Northern Ethiopia. Following the resumption of conflict in the three regions, mass displacements were recorded in the three regions. 1.2 million people were displaced due to the conflict, bringing the total displacement to 1.9 million. The newly displaced people are living with host communities, in open spaces, unfinished buildings, and some of the IDPs also joining to the existing IDP sites. With improvement in the security situation in Northern Ethiopia, returns have been reported in Amhara and Afar regions. With many of the houses either partially or completely destroyed, whilst their household items were destroyed or looted, they are living in inhabitable shelters and are in dire need of shelter and household items assistance. In Oromia and Somali regions, over a million people were displaced due to conflict and the Cluster has not been able to reach to many of these people, leaving them in serious need of shelter and household items assistance. The continued drought has caused displacements in Afar, Somali, and Oromia regions. The Cluster has targeted 637K people for drought responses, yet less than half have been reached to date. Due to the limited available supplies in stock and in pipeline, the Cluster has been unable to reach all the IDPs with an overall gap of 650K living in very dire humanitarian conditions.


Since the beginning of the year, the Cluster has reached 3.5 million people with Emergency Shelter, NFI kits, ESNFI kits, and Shelter Repair kits in Afar, Amhara, Oromia, Benishangul Gumz, Gambella, Tigray, SNNP, and Somali regions. This constitutes 84% of the overall Cluster target of 4.1 million. In Northern Ethiopia, 2.3 million people were reached out of the total target of 2.5 million people, with 94% of people targeted for emergency shelter assistance only reached. In other conflict areas, 84% of the targeted people were reached. The Cluster also managed to reach 286K drought-affected people with emergency shelter and NFI assistance, which is 45% of the drought target. A total of 62 partners were active during the year period, consisting of international, national, and local NGOs and UN agencies.

Gaps / challenges

During the year, Cluster activities were affected by lack of funding considering the existing huge gap and need due to conflict, drought, and floods. Having responded to 3.5 out of the targeted 4.1 million, the Cluster had an overall gap of 16%. Lack of resources also left a big gap of 64% for shelter-related assistance by the Cluster. Security-related access issues made it difficult for partners to reach the conflict zones mainly in Tigray, Oromia, Somali and SNNP regions. In Tigray Region, lack of fuel, cash, and movement restrictions to some conflict-affected areas posed serious challenges in responding to the needy people in the region. In Amhara Region, the lack of appropriate land in North Shewa to allow constructed shelter for the IDPs in Deber Birhan has left them living in overcrowded and inhabitable shelters and open spaces. Partners have also struggled to obtain information on the IDP situation as the majority of them are living with host communities. The suspension of food supplies in some regions has also led to the selling of NFIs provided to the IDPs.