- The 1 February military takeover, coupled with the state of emergency and nationwide protests/demonstrations against the takeover, has resulted in the resurgence of violence that caused new displacement and additional needs, including emergency Shelter & NFIs, for conflict affected internally displaced people dwelling in camps, displacement sites and camp-like settings in Myanmar.
- Frequent and large-scale displacement is now being seen in new areas such as Chin, Sagaing, and Magway, as well as various states in the Southeast. Many newly displaced people are staying in informal sites in jungles and forested areas, without access to clean water or proper shelter and few livelihood opportunities. The rapid pace of new displacement results in a proliferation of informal sites without appropriate planning, sometimes in hard-to-reach areas.
- The operating environment has become more challenging in several respects: a volatile security situation and high tensions, new conflict dynamics and intensifying clashes, access constraints and the collapse or disruption of public services such a health care against the backdrop of an economic and banking crisis. In such a context, underfunding continues to remain a critical challenge for the Shelter/NFI/CCCM Cluster and its partners.
- Opportunities for durable solutions for IDPs including return, resettlement or local integration have been more limited in 2021.
- From a political crisis, undistinguishably linked with a socio-economic and health crisis, Myanmar is faced with a multi-dimensional humanitarian catastrophe. Considering the deteriorating situation across the country, the Cluster was extended nationwide in August 2021.
- To address needs for 2021, the cluster appealed for $36.8M for Shelter/NFI/CCCM activities under the HRP (pre-military takeover). By the end of 2021, only 12.8% of the clusters’ financial ask has been funded. An HRP addendum has been published on 1 July with an additional ask of $8.6 million for Shelter/NFI/CCCM activities in areas that are currently not covered under the HRP.
- Through the analysis for the 2022 HNO and 2022 HRP, the cluster has identified 1.7 million people in need of aid and plans to reach 621.000 people. The cluster financial requirement under the 2022 HRP is $US 50 million.
Central Rakhine & Chin:
- 194,930 IDPs* across 24 camps and 135 displacement sites across central Rakhine and Chin.
- In the central part of Rakhine, about 600 longhouses in three townships sheltering more than 25,000 Rohingya people need urgent renovation. The funding gap reported is $US 5.13 million.
- In IDPs sites, particularly in inland areas, winterization kits are the most commonly requested items aside from Shelter and NFI support (household items), partners are prepared to meet the needs for Shelter and NFI support, but 49,000 individuals will still need winterization support.
Kachin & Shan (North):
- 106,248 IDPs* across 169 IDP locations, camps, camp-like settings, host communities/boarding schools, out of which 98,000 are targeted under the current HRP. There is an increase of IDPs and displacement sites and shelter needs in new displacement sites are growing.
- Over 4,000 newly displaced population moved to protracted displacement sites, some within existing sites and the rest creating new camps/camp like settings. Around 10,000 new IDPs remain displaced throughout Kachin and northern Shan by the end of December 2021.
- Approximately 37% of camps in non-govt.-controlled areas with limited access or no coverage.
- In Kachin, an estimated 2,000 people, including returned IDPs, need shelters and urgent NFI support, including essential household items.
- The total shelter intervention planned for 2021 increased to 3,381 covering around 36% of the total shelter need (9,424). The remaining gap of 2,843 new shelter constructions with attached kitchen, 70 kitchen only constructions, 32 communal hall constructions and 3,200 repairs and renovations is carried over to 2022 (cost: over $US 4 million).
*Due to the current situation, the number of IDPs in need might significantly be higher.
- After the endorsment of the terms of reference of the cluster's strategic advisory group (SAG), cluster partners were invited to submit expressions of interest to become members. The SAG is now composed of 2 INGOs and one NNGO.
Central Rakhine & Chin:
- Shelter/NFI partners reached over 116,000 individuals with NFI assistance, providing essential household items to vulnerable households during a time of rapid market deterioration in Myanmar.
- 1,600 vulnerable households were reached with winterization items in the Sittwe and Pauktaw Rohingya camps with coordination between LWF, DRC, and UNHCR. These distributions specifically targeted households with PSNs that identified these items as a top priority.
Kachin & Shan (North):
- In 2021, out of the 3,381 units of shelter planned (for new construction/repair and renovation) in camps, 2,895 units were completed.
- Additionally, 226 makeshift shelters were constructed to support the newly displaced population in 2021. Besides, 858 new transitional solution shelters were planned out of which 816 units were completed by end of December, rest are ongoing.
- In Kachin and Shan (north), the shelter gaps per camp will be reviewed and updated based on the needs assessment in 2022.
Gaps / challenges
- Funding gaps remain a constant challenge in all areas.
- In central Rakhine, IDPs are affected by frequent cases of extortion by camp management committees.
- Land or additional space for increasing number of IDPs, with limited space in camps continues to remain a challenge, leading to congested camps and several fire breakouts, requiring additional emergency shelter/NFI support.
- Complex land issues in the Sittwe and Pauktaw Rohingy IDP camp areas are threatening communities living in makeshift shelters as well as humanitarian infrastructure.
- In the middle of a cash shortage, camp management agencies continue to face challenges with withdrawals. Prices across the country are higher than the previous year (i.e. rice, cooking oil, etc.). Shelter costs, especially timber costs have drastically increased in bordering areas in both Rakhine and Kachin due to which the coverage has been reduced with the available resources.
- Due to COVID-19, the military takeover and clashes and insecurity, humanitarian organizations are facing severe access constraints that are causing service gaps and unmet needs. Some of the planned shelter implementations were cancelled due to access issue as well as cost increment.
- COVID preventing items, RCCE in camps/communities and response to covid cases in camps are in huge gaps due to various challenges in funding and movement restrictions.
- Pre-existing shelter gaps remain in need of urgent response as funds are being redirected to emergency shelter/NFI support.
- Lack of capacity due to new displacement is resulting in increased case load.