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2022-06 Factsheet - Myanmar

< Dec 2021
June 2022

Highlights

  • The 1 February military takeover, coupled with the state of emergency and nationwide protests/demonstrations against the takeover, has resulted in the resurgence of violence that caused new displacement and additional needs, including emergency Shelter & NFIs, for conflict affected internally displaced people dwelling in camps, displacement sites and camp-like settings in Myanmar.
  • Frequent and large-scale displacement is now being seen in new areas such as Chin, Sagaing, and Magway, as well as various states in the Southeast. Many newly displaced people are staying in informal sites in jungles and forested areas, without access to clean water or proper shelter and few livelihood opportunities. The rapid pace of new displacement results in a proliferation of informal sites without appropriate planning, sometimes in hard-to-reach areas.
  • The operating environment has become more challenging in several respects: a volatile security situation and high tensions, new conflict dynamics and intensifying clashes, access constraints and the collapse or disruption of public services such a health care against the backdrop of an economic and banking crisis. In such a context, underfunding continues to remain a critical challenge for the Shelter/NFI/CCCM Cluster and its partners.
  • Opportunities for durable solutions for IDPs including return, resettlement or local integration have been more limited in 2021.
  • From a political crisis, undistinguishably linked with a socio-economic and health crisis, Myanmar is faced with a multi-dimensional humanitarian catastrophe. Considering the deteriorating situation across the country, the Cluster was extended nationwide in August 2021.
  • Through the analysis for the 2022 HNO and 2022 HRP, the Cluster has identified 1.7M people in need and planned to reach 621K people.
  • To address needs for 2022, the Cluster appealed for US $50M for Shelter/NFI/CCCM activities under the HRP. By mid-2022, only 7.4% of the Cluster's financial ask has been funded.

 

NFI

Shelter

Need analysis

General:

  • The monsoon season is in full swing with strong storms and heavy rain hitting Rakhine, Kachin, southern Shan, and Kayin since April, causing damage to shelters and further compounding existing vulnerabilities. With the monsoon, there is a need for maintenance work for public infrastructure, such as roads, culverts, and bridges in camps.

Central Rakhine & Chin:

  • 188,860 IDPs* across 24 camps and 125 displacement sites across central Rakhine State and Paletwa Township (in Chin State).
  • A total of 249 longhouses remains in urgent need of reconstruction in Sittwe and Pauktaw IDP camps. Despite recent funding commitments, a $2.1 million funding gap to repair these structures.
  • In AA-MAF displacement sites, 3,100 households remain in need of shelter assistance in the form of full shelter kits. There is a minimum $500,000 funding gap.

Kachin & Shan (North):

  • 110,611 IDPs* across 171 IDP locations, camps, camp-like settings, host communities/boarding schools. There is an increase in number of IDPs and displacement sites.
  • The total shelter intervention planned for 2022 is of 2,536 units (new construction/repair and renovation) covering around 30% of the total shelter need (8,448).
  • More than 500 households in Mogaung, Waingmaw and Mansi Townships need to relocate to new sites as the land tenure for three locations has expired. These households are also in need of shelter, WASH and food assistance.

South-East:

  • Emergency shelter items (tarpaulins and ropes), core relief items (kitchen sets, sleeping mats, mosquito nets, jerry cans, buckets, dignity kits, clothing, and solar lanterns) and cash assistance continue to be a key need in the southeast.
  • More than 900 displaced households in Kayin and from Demoso, Hpruso, Pekhon and Moe Byae in Kayah need shelter kits; around 11,000 people have been recently displaced from Bilin township and will need shelter assistance to protect themselves from the monsoon rains.

North-West:

  • In Sagaing, 627 houses from 39 villages were reportedly burnt down in the first week of June and the affected families need urgent emergency shelter assistance. Since 1 Feb 2021, more than 13,000 houses are estimated to have been burnt down the region leaving an enormous shelter deficit that will have long-term implications for return.

* Due to the current situation, the number of IDPs in need might significantly be higher.

Response

National:

  • In the first half of 2022, the Shelter/NFI/CCCM Cluster has reached 276,463 people, which represents about 45% of the target set in 2022. It is however important to note that the targets set by the Shelter/NFI/CCCM Cluster for 2022 no longer accurately reflect the reality of the ground. Massive internal displacement is on the rise in Myanmar due to conflict, leading to an important increase in terms of needs of Shelter/NFI/CCCM assistance.

Central Rakhine & Chin:

  • In Rakhine State, Shelter partners have been reconstructing damaged and structurally unsound IDP shelters in Rohingya camps to reduce people’s exposure and ensure their safety. Dilapidated and unsafe structures are being replaced with longhouses built with more durable materials that can better withstand the effects of natural hazards. Since 2021, 688 longhouses have been reconstructed, supporting more dignified living conditions for 30,272 IDPs.
  • To date in 2022, partners supported 2,640 households with solar lights and 1,023 households with NFIs in Baw Du Pha 1 IDP camp in Sittwe township. In addition, a total of 5,100 IDPs in 87 AA-MAF displacement sites in Minbya, Mrauk-U, Myebon and Sittwe townships have received NFI assistance, while more than 670 displaced households comprised of about 3,400 people have been reached with emergency shelter assistance.
  • In Kyauk Ta Lone IDP camp, which is slated for closure by the de facto authorities, 191 households (approximately 1,000 people) were provided with tarpaulins and rope to help improve their shelter situation. The de facto authorities have halted longhouse reconstruction in this site meaning emergency solutions are the only available option for people staying here.

Kachin & Shan (North):

  • In 2021, out of the 3,381 units of shelter planned (for new construction/repair and renovation) in camps, 2,895 units were completed.
  • Additionally, 226 makeshift shelters were constructed to support the newly displaced population in 2021.  Besides, 858 new transitional solution shelters were planned out of which 816 units were completed by end of December, rest are ongoing.
  • In Kachin and Shan (north), the shelter gaps per camp will be reviewed and updated based on the needs assessment in 2022.

South-East:

  • Shelter partners are looking into ways to assess the shelter conditions of recently displaced people in Kayin, southern Shan and Tanintharyi amid security and access challenges. Many have taken shelter in the jungle or plantation fields without adequate shelter or access to basic services.

North-West:

  • In Sagaing Region, cluster partners in Kachin and northern Shan states distributed NFIs to more than 100 newly displaced households in Katha township.

Gaps / challenges

  • Funding gaps remain a constant challenge in all areas.
  • Inflation in commodity prices, including food, fuel, shelter materials and NFIs, has become a major concern to partners in addressing the needs of the most vulnerable people.
  • Land or additional space for increasing number of IDPs, with limited space in camps continues to remain a challenge, leading to congested camps and several fire breakouts, requiring additional emergency shelter/NFI support. 
  • Complex land issues in the Sittwe and Pauktaw Rohingy IDP camp areas are threatening communities living in makeshift shelters as well as humanitarian infrastructure.
    • In Rakhine State, housing land property (HLP) issues within camp areas or boundaries for service providers, implementers and camp management agencies remain unresolved. Advocacy at the state level is ongoing but more advocacy with the de facto authorities at national level is required to define the camp boundaries. Partners are required to obtain a written letter of land use clearance from the village administrator or authorities for any construction and renovation activities for temporary longhouses/shelters and other humanitarian infrastructure in camps, which is resulting in delays in planned responses.
  • The Kyauk Ta Lone camp relocation process in Kyaukpyu township continues, despite concerns that the relocation site is unsuitable for residential as it is flood prone and already partially flooded ahead of the monsoon season. Advocacy at the union level should continue to ensure that any camp closure is done in line with minimum standards and the wishes of IDPs, and that the closure results in either durable solutions or takes tangible, progressive steps towards them.
  • Due to COVID-19, the military takeover and clashes and insecurity, humanitarian organizations are facing severe access constraints that are causing service gaps and unmet needs.
  • Pre-existing shelter gaps remain in need of urgent response as funds are being redirected to emergency shelter/NFI support.
  • Lack of capacity due to new displacement is resulting in increased case load.
  • In April, the cluster consolidated an overview of all shelter/NFI stockpiles in the country, which highlighted that in the worst-case scenario of a cyclone due to limited funding and access restrictions, partners would only be able to cover 12 per cent of the most urgent needs.