In regions Nigeria and Africa and in groups Nigeria and Africa


Working Groups

2023-12 Factsheet - Nigeria

< Sep 2023
December 2023
Basu Poudel/Sector, 2023


As of December 2023, the DTM assessment identified a total of 2,084,629 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) of 435,311 households across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe. Furthermore, 2,083,835 returnees were recorded in the same Round 46 assessment. This number represents an increase of 8,578 individuals, or less than one percent, compared to Round 45, when 2,075,257 returnees were recorded in June 2023.

This figure directly impacts the Shelter and NFI sector with an equal increase in demand for shelter and NFI responses. Women and children (82%) continue to constitute the majority of the vulnerable affected population.

During this period, poor living conditions, climate-induced, military operations, and security-related displacements characterized by IDP campfires and flooding incidents continued to pose a significant challenge in providing safe and dignified living conditions for the thousands displaced.

Despite facing significant funding challenges, the sector has undertaken a people-centric response by enhancing coordination mechanisms to collaborate strategically with partners and other sectors. This collective effort aims to address the needs of the affected population with constrained resources.



Need analysis

During this period, 489,189 households (HHs), equivalent to 2,445,945 (1,369,729 females and 1,076,216 males), required shelter (330,629) and (489,189) NFIs assistance across Borno (76%), Adamawa (16%), and Yobe (8%) states. The funds received for shelter and NFI interventions stood at 51.4%, translating to a 49.6% financial gap, thus impeding the provision of much-needed shelter and NFI responses. The low response capacity among the sector partners increased vulnerability among the displaced population, with the majority living in undignified living conditions and facing protection risks, including gender-based violence.

The sector recorded a 6% increase in shelter solutions needed during this period, partly attributed to the increase in the number of new arrivals, returnees, and those affected by fire and flood, which exacerbated the need for shelter and NFI responses. Additionally, 4,445 HH (22,225 individuals) were recorded sleeping in the open, while 27,790 HH (138,949 individuals) lived in highly congested camps below 15 sq m per person, and overcrowded reception centers need Shelter/NFI responses.

The increasing occurrence of campfires, with 16 incidents recorded during the reporting period, continued to stretch shelter and NFI responses across Borno State. Unresolved housing, land, and property (HLP) issues remained a significant challenge in shelter and settlement responses in northeast Nigeria as most families face secondary displacements and will need new shelters or rental support.

By the end of December 2023, the sector had recorded a 6% increase in demand for shelter and NFI responses as compared to last quarter.


By the end of 2023, the Shelter/NFI Sector, through its partners, had reached 64,031 HHs with shelter (20,371) and non-food item (43,660) responses, which equated to 17% of the people targeted across BAY states. Among these beneficiaries, 57% were women and children.


320,155 people (176,917 female and 143,362 male) were reached through shelter and NFI responses per state.

169,287 shelters were targeted in 2023.

3,749 HHs (18,745 individuals) were reached during Q4  reporting.

201,435 NFI will be targeted in 2023.

6,699 HHs (33,495 individuals) were reached during Q4.

2,350 HHs reached with an emergency shelter solution:

6,699 households reached with non-food item solutions:

928 HHs with reinforced /transitional shelter solutions:

To date, 64,031 HHs (320,155 individuals) were reached against a targeted population of 1,853,609 with 20,371 shelters and 43,660 NFI responses. 

Specifically, 9,768 HHs benefited from in-kind and cash assistance within the quarter across the BAY states, with Borno State recording the majority (69%) of the responses. 2,350 HHs ( 11,750 individuals) received emergency shelters. The increase of 62% in ES responses as compared to the previous period was attributed to an influx of new arrivals, returnees, and households affected by fire and floods. NFI responses equally targeted these categories of displaced populations.

928 HHs (**individuals) benefited from shelter reinforcement/transitional shelter solutions, with a total of 4,932 responses by the end of 2023, translating to 11% of the target.  3% of durable housing solutions were built during this period. Additionally, 6% of beneficiaries benefited from cash rent responses.

Gaps / challenges

  • Significant underfunding (48.6 % funding gap) within the sector continued to limit partners' capacity to address urgent shelter and NFI needs.
  • Erratic weather conditions, characterized by floods and high temperatures, have led to an increase in demand for shelter solutions. This has triggered climate-induced displacement, affected shelter materials, and thus increased the vulnerability of the displaced population. 
  • Evictions and threats stemming from unresolved HLP issues remained a significant challenge in shelter and settlement responses in northeast Nigeria.
  • Insecurity in most local government areas, particularly in Borno State, home to a large portion of the displaced population, continued to hinder humanitarian response efforts primarily hindering access and leading to new displacements.
  • Inflation in Nigeria continues to increase the overall cost of shelter solutions responses.