In regions Nigeria and Africa and in groups Nigeria and Africa


Working Groups

2023-09 Factsheet - Nigeria

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Austine Okande/SECTOR, 2023


The humanitarian crisis in north-east Nigeria continues to present complex and ever-evolving dynamics, characterized by insecurity across various local government areas, particularly in remote regions. This escalation has led to an increased demand for shelter and non-food items (NFI) responses. Consequently, a significant portion of the affected population lacks access to basic needs, including shelter.

Across Adamawa and Borno states, reports indicated that there were 23,884 new arrivals, of whom 17,131 were recorded as IDPs and 6,716 were returnees. Borno State received the majority (54% of this population). The increasing number of people in need continues to severely stretch already overburdened basic services.

Through an enhanced coordination mechanism, the sector strategically collaborated with its partners and other sectors to provide a people centred response despite low funding levels within the sector.



Need analysis

As of the end of the reporting period, 342,017 HHs representing 1,710,085 individuals were in need of shelter (342,017) and (256,870) NFIs in camp and camp like settings across Borno (82%), Adamawa (11%), and Yobe (7%) states. During this period, underfunding within the sector led to low responses among partners, thus impeding the provision of much-needed shelter and NFI responses to 442,616 HHs representing 2,213,080 (1,305,717 females and 907,363 males) to undignified living conditions, protection risks, including gender-based violence, and the spread of life-threatening diseases such as cholera within the camps and camp-like settings. 

The increased number of 26,053 new caseloads (19,910 new arrivals, 4,127 returnees, and 2,169 those affected by fire) exacerbated the need for shelter and NFI responses. The surge has resulted in 2,938 HH sleeping in the open, 11,531 HH living in overly crowded reception centres, and 167,196 HH living in far too crowded camp sites. Another population of 128,850 HH are living in makeshift shelters, and 195,187 HH are sharing with families and friends in small-sized shelters across the three states.

During this period, the sector recorded an increase in demand for shelter and NFI responses as compared to last quarters, a 2.3% increase in need as compared to the previous year during the same period.

Indeed, during this period, the majority of the shelters in the IDP settings remained uninhabitable. Many had worn-out tarpaulins and lacked roofing materials, and if they did, many were licking and many required reinforcements. Additionally, the majority of the IDPs lacked NFIs, while some needed replacement. Congestion in reception centres and IDP camps further exacerbated the challenges faced by displaced populations.


In the third quarter of 2023, 11 shelter and NFI solutions partners in north-east Nigeria provided life-saving assistance to 7,987 households (39,935 individuals), bringing the cumulative reach to 13% of the targeted people in Borno, Adamawa, and Yobe states. 55% of these people were women and children.   

267,915 people (147,353 female and 120,562 male) were reached through shelter and NFI responses.

169,287 shelters were targeted in 2023.

16,622 households have been reached so far.

201,435 NFI targeted in 2023.

36,961 Reached so far.

10,602 households reached with emergency shelter solutions:

36,961 households reached with non-food item solutions:

2,016 permanent shelter solutions were constructed:

4,004 Reinforced/Transitional Shelter Solution:

These assistances were mainly provided to IDPs, returnees in both camps and camp-like settings, targeting mainly newly displaced people or those who lost NFIs in fire outbreaks.

Shelter reinforcement/transitional shelter solutions reached 0.4%, of the total population, while 6% of permanent shelter solutions were constructed mainly across areas with relative security. 6 % benefited from cash rent responses.

Gaps / challenges

  • Underfunding within the sector (49.6% funding gap) continued to limit partners capacity to respond to urgent shelter and NFI responses.
  • Evictions and threats occasioned by unresolved Housing, Land and Property (HLP) disputes were among the key challenges hindering the shelter and settlement responses in the north-east Nigeria.
  • Unprecedented climate-related shocks such as fire outbreaks in camps and flooding continued to derail shelter and NFI responses.
  • The fluid security situation in most of the local government areas, especially in Borno State, which hosts * of the IDPs, continued to hamper humanitarian response due to a lack of access and an increased caseload of people in need.
  • Increasing inflation in Nigeria and challenges in sourcing some of the shelter and NFI materials have led to delayed responses and further increased the cost of providing assistance.