In regions Nigeria and Africa and in groups Nigeria and Africa


Working Groups

2023-06 Factsheet - Nigeria

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Basu Poudel/SECTOR, 2023


The humanitarian situation in North-East Nigeria remains relatively fluid, characterized by increasing cases of insecurities in various local government areas, especially the deep field locations, leading to an increase in shelter and non-food item (NFI) needs along with other humanitarian needs, hence adding to the existing protracted caseloads from previous primary and secondary displacements. The situation has left most of the returnees, internationally displaced persons (IDPs) in camps and camp-like settings, refugees, and vulnerable people residing in the host communities without access to basic needs, including shelters with women, children, and people with specific needs accounting for the most disproportionately affected.

In Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) Round 44, published in June 2023, it was reported that there were 2,388,703 IDPs living in camps and camp-like settings in Borno, Adamawa, and Yobe (BAY) states. The report observed that displaced families are currently being hosted in temporary settlement options such as formal camps, informal camps, host communities, and reception centres, where living conditions fall short of the minimum standards with persistent exposure to protection, health, and environmental risks for over a decade.

During this period, 3,176 individuals (89 percent being women and children) new arrivals were recorded across seven reception centres in Borno State. With the surge in population in reception centres, basic services to IDPs are overstretched, with 595 HHs living outside in the open space, and 4,521 HHs need shelters. In addition to the lack of decent living conditions, the 4,135 IDPs HHs lack of NFIs such as mosquito nets and blankets, which further pose a health risk, especially during the prevailing rainy season.

However, amidst this challenging environment coupled by multi-faced issues, the CCCM, Shelter, and NFI sector in close collaboration with the government emergence response leads (National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and State Emergency Management Agency SEMA), sector partners, the communities, and other sectors including WASH and protection sectors continued to engage in several response interventions to reduce the existing gaps in shelter and NFI.

Throughout this period the sector enhanced the coordination mechanism in the Shelter and NFI response in the north-east Nigeria. Specifically, the sector provided technical guidance in the implementation of the Shelter and NFI responses based on the sector guidelines, all in the aspiration to ensure accountability to the affected populations. The sector continued to coordinate the interventions to primarily reduced duplication of effort. The sector conducted regular service monitoring visits, advocated for more funds, facilitated coordination meetings, and capacity-building initiatives (trainings) to strengthen partners capacities in implementing protection-centered intervention.  



Need analysis

During the second quarter of 2023, the funds received for shelter and NFI interventions stood at 56 percent translating to 44 percent financial gap for these interventions. This translates that the needs are very high compared to the resources available hence Shelter/NFI sector and its stakeholder need to optimize the available resources through various approaches including engagement of community members who are capable and able in the community-based shelter interventions.

During this reporting period, shelter and NFI needs stood at 378,845 households (HHs), equivalent to 1,894,225 individuals in IDP camps, camp-like settings, and host communities, across BAY states.

There is still a substantial number of the affected population residing in the open. During the reporting period, a total of 4,369 HH (23,156 individuals) were sleeping in the open, exposing the affected population, especially the most vulnerable spectrum of this population women, children, and persons with disabilities in the health, nutrition, food security, WASH and protection risks including sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) risks.

The need to decongest camp- and camps-like settings persisted during this reporting period. Apart from the fact that shelters and NFIs remained inadequate, most of them are worn out and needed replacement. Due to funding constraints, the presence of Shelter/NFI partners continued to be minimal with low responses in several locations leaving most of the shelter and NFI needs unattended especially the urgent ones following the fire and flood incidents. Shelters for 1,482 HH equivalent to 7,262 individuals were affected by fire and flood incidents during this reporting period.


  • 499 durable shelters were constructed in several locations, including 5 returnee shelters in Kaleri, 452 shelters in Labondo, 28 shelters in Muna Ethiopia, and 14 shelters in Bulari II.
  • A total of 1,411 shelter kits were distributed to the affected population based on the vulnerability screening in several locations across BAY States including Kala Balge.
  • A total of 5,380 NFI kits, both standard and improved were distributed to the IDPs, returnees, and vulnerable people in the host communities.
  • 1,015 emergency shelters were constructed in several camps and camp-like settings across the BAY States as a response to cover the shelter needs emerging from several triggers, including floods, fires and windstorms.
  • 820 Emergency Shelter Kitwere were distributed across Mafa, Benisheikh, Pulka, Gwoza, and Dikwa as part of an effort to decongest camps in these areas, including the GSS camp in Gwoza.
  • As an immediate solution to the protracted shelter needs, 100 shelters accommodating 100 HH for 500 individuals were repaired/reinforced in the camps, camp-like settings, and out-of-camp locations.
  • As part of the camp decongestion effort and measures towards attaining durable shelter interventions, the sector developed ten site plans for the newly acquired lands of 100 hectares that would accommodate an estimated 25000 households in Borno and Adamawa states.
  • The sector with support from IOM DTM, conducted a market assessment of Shelter and NFI material based on the minimum item standards, 168 selected key markets across nine different states in Nigeria. The assessment focused on the availability of materials and the impact of recent global dynamics on the supply chain and market access. The result of the survey will guide sector partners in their programming.

Gaps / challenges

  • Inaccessibility in some locations due to various impeding factors including insecurity in hard-to-reach areas like Marte and poor road infrastructures especially during rainy season in areas like Kala Balge.
  • Lack of secure sustainable land tenure. Evictions and threats occasioned by unresolved Housing, Land, and Property (HLP) disputes are among the key challenges hindering the Shelter responses. Most beneficiaries targeted for mud bricks/durable shelter do not own land/property/houses. Further, issues of eviction were also reported as one among many prevailing challenges in locations like Yajiwa Kusheri camp.
  • Limited number of shelter and NFI partners in Yobe State and other locations like Magumeri and Kala Balge was a significant barrier to meeting the needs.
  • Underfunding has also remained to hinder the favorable implementation of the shelter and NFI interventions.
  • Depleted pipeline and rapid response stocks for both the sector’s providers of last resort and RRM. This really affected the shelter responses in incidents where the displaced people were affected by fire outbreaks and floods.