In regions Nigeria and Africa and in groups Nigeria and Africa


Working Groups

2023-03 Factsheet - Nigeria

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Rodah Manzi/SECTOR, 2023


In the dawn of 2023, the CCCM, shelter and NFI sector in close collaboration with its partners and the government leads in NE Nigeria have continued to optimize the use of the available resources to meet the needs of the affected population residing in the camps, camp like settings and host communities for the IDPs, returnees and the vulnerable individuals in the host communities who have been exposed to the tiring living conditions since the blow of the insurgency 12 years down the line.

The sector coordinated the shelter and NFI interventions through various ways including monitoring of the activities in the field, facilitate coordination meetings, and facilitating capacity building trainings.

The sector mobilized necessary efforts in developing contingency plan for the preparedness and response before, during and after the rain season with the main aim of reducing the impacts of losses of both lives and belongings (shelters and NFIs included).  

The sector engaged in several meetings for deliberate executions of land advocacy to enhance decongestion. This included bilateral sitting with the military and government lead focal points of various locations including Kala Balge.

Shelter response is transitioning to durable shelter solutions, hence for the new lands that will be acquired across BAY states, the partners were informed to align their program to construction of mud brick shelters or similar transitional shelters.

Nevertheless, it was noted that most of the shelter and NFI needs in this period were triggered by the incidents of fire and cases of new arrivals



Need analysis

During this reporting period, most of the shelter and NFI needs resulted from incidents of fire out break and cases of new arrival adding up to the carry-over of the persisting pressing needs due to protracted backlog of caseload from the previous years. Consequently, this led to an increased number of the affected population in critical needs as most of them were sleeping in the open, make-shift shelters, incomplete buildings, overcrowded reception centers, and others were accommodated by relatives and friend in the congested shelters, and overcrowded camps hence exposing them further to considerable protection and security risks.

Need for decongestion of the of both shelters and sites accommodating the IDPs and others of concern. Lack of enough land and shelter assistance has pulled the community into undesirable coping mechanisms whereby most of them have extended their shelters with thatch materials by blocking most of the access roads leading to heightened risks especially in events of fire outbreaks.  

A total number of 7,091 HHs were affected by fire in the period between January and April 2023 as reported by the CCCM partners on ground which mobilized resources for quick response from partners on ground in the respective sites and in instances where there were no capacities to urgently respond, it was escalated to the sector for a coordinated synergy response. So far 79 fire incidents were reported across 46 sites.

The total number of 385,156 households for 1,925,780 individuals across BAY states remain to be in dire need of shelter and NFI support.

Timely responses due to funding constraints.


The sector through its partners provided shelter support to the IDPs and others of concern through:

  • Construction and repair of emergence shelters in various locations including GSS and El-Yakub camps in Borno state.
  • Construction of transitional shelter, whereby one of the partners constructed the compressed stabilized mudbrick shelters for 110 targeted HH (partner’s target), and movable shelters for 40 HH in various locations across Borno state including Monguno, Dikwa, Damboa and Jere which helped in decongestions.
  • One sector partner fabricated manual compression machine for production of stabilized mudbricks which requires 4 operators and can produce approximately 300 bricks per day. This initiative is in line with the government and sector’s position towards transitioning to durable shelter solutions.
  • Need assessments, prioritization and distribution of standard and improved NFIs kits across several locations in BAY states, reaching several deep field locations including Sangere dutse camp in Adamawa state.
  • Development of improved site plans for several locations of the lands which were acquired in Banki, Ngala, MMC and other locations.

Generally, Out of the 1.8 million individuals of the affected persons targeted for this years, a total of 27,381 HH equivalent to 136,905 individuals were reached with various kinds of shelter and NFI support translating to 7% reach of the planned target.

Gaps / challenges

During this reporting period, the following challenges were encountered,

  • Untimely responses to the urgent needs of shelter and NFI following fire incidents and cases of new arrivals due to budgetary constraints. Some of the areas which were highly affected include Monguno, Magumeri and Mafa LGAs.
  • A huge number of IDPs and others of concern have continued live below the recommended sphere and other humanitarian standards as they have continued to reside in the overcrowded, dilapidated, and inadequate shelters. Further, the camps, reception centers and other settings for accommodating them are highly congested while other areas in places like Kala Balge prone to floods.
  • All the reception centers were reported to be stretched far beyond it carrying capacities, with Pulka being ranked as the highest accommodating a total number of 5,006HH against its capacity of 931 HH, followed by Ngala which accommodates 1,712 HH against its capacity of only 100 HH.
  • Suspension of NGO activities in Adamawa in February affected shelter and NFI interventions as well.
  • Ambiguity in access to secure land tenure. This led to eviction of IDPs in some areas around MMC and it further affected some projects including construction of 100 durable shelters at Kaleri which had to stop for some time because, although the land was provided by the commissioner, some private individuals later claimed that they own that land.
  • Absence or low presence of shelter and NFI partners in some locations across BAY states including but not limited to Kala Balge, Mallamsuri, Kumburi, Ngetra Wang in Gubio and in Yobe state.