It is a self-independent state of Somalia that is recognized as an autonomous region consisting of five regions, i.e. Togdheer, Sanaag, Sool, Woqooyi Galbeed and Awdal with Hargeisa as its capital city. It is situated in the northern part of Somalia bordering the republic of Djibouti to the West and Puntland State to the East. Hargeisa town is the biggest urban setting in the Somaliland and as a capital town; it concentrates public administration, private sector and international community interventions. Hargeisa has undertaken significant reconstruction and rehabilitation activities. It is the destination for a large number of refugees, returnees and IDPs in Somaliland.
Somaliland is home to approximately 85,000 (OCHA, October, 2014) internally displaced persons most of whom are protracted IDPs displaced by conflicts in the neighboring regions, natural hazards such as the recurrent droughts and access to basic services. The displaced communities that fled their home territories due to civil conflict and severe drought conditions are believed to be approximately 45,000 in Woqooyi Galbeed, 26,000 in Togdheer, 5000 in Sool, 8,000 in Awdal and 1,000 in Sanaag (UNHCR 2012).
The Shelter Cluster mapping infrastructure exercise in Burao and Hargeysa were conducted in 24 settlements and 9 settlements respectively in December 2014. This exercise revealed that majority of IDPs in this regions originated from Togdheer, Awdal, Sanaag, Banadir, Bay and Sool and other regions like Banadir, Mudug, Hiraan, Bakool and Galgaduud.